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Challenges 2013, 4(2), 169-187; doi:10.3390/challe4020169
Article

In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Electronic Waste Leachate and Contaminated Well Water

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Received: 30 May 2013; in revised form: 14 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Waste — Impact, Policy and Green Design)
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Abstract: Environmental, plant and animal exposure to hazardous substances from electronic wastes (e-wastes) in Nigeria is increasing. In this study, the potential cytogenotoxicity of e-wastes leachate and contaminated well water samples obtained from Alaba International Electronic Market in Lagos, Nigeria, using induction of chromosome and root growth anomalies in Allium cepa, and micronucleus (MN) in peripheral erythrocytes of Clarias gariepinus, was evaluated. The possible cause of DNA damage via the assessments of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as indicators of oxidative stress in mice was also investigated. There was significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of root growth and mitosis in A. cepa. Cytological aberrations such as spindle disturbance, C-mitosis and binucleated cells, and morphological alterations like tumor and twisting roots were also induced. There was concentration-dependent, significant (p < 0.05) induction of micronucleated erythrocytes and nuclear abnormalities such as blebbed nuclei and binucleated erythrocytes in C. gariepinus. A significant increase (p < 0.001) in CAT, GSH and MDA with concomitant decrease in SOD concentrations were observed in the treated mice. Pb, As, Cu, Cr, and Cd analyzed in the tested samples contributed significantly to these observations. This shows that the well water samples and leachate contained substances capable of inducing somatic mutation and oxidative stress in living cells; and this is of health importance in countries with risk of e-wastes exposure.
Keywords: chromosome aberration; micronucleus; reactive oxygen species; Allium cepa; Clarias gariepinus; albino mice chromosome aberration; micronucleus; reactive oxygen species; Allium cepa; Clarias gariepinus; albino mice
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bakare, A.A.; Alabi, O.A.; Gbadebo, A.M.; Ogunsuyi, O.I.; Alimba, C.G. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Electronic Waste Leachate and Contaminated Well Water. Challenges 2013, 4, 169-187.

AMA Style

Bakare AA, Alabi OA, Gbadebo AM, Ogunsuyi OI, Alimba CG. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Electronic Waste Leachate and Contaminated Well Water. Challenges. 2013; 4(2):169-187.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bakare, Adekunle A.; Alabi, Okunola A.; Gbadebo, Adeyinka M.; Ogunsuyi, Olusegun I.; Alimba, Chibuisi G. 2013. "In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity and Oxidative Stress Induced by Electronic Waste Leachate and Contaminated Well Water." Challenges 4, no. 2: 169-187.

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