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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 74; doi:10.3390/jmse4040074

Biofouling on Coated Carbon Steel in Cooling Water Cycles Using Brackish Seawater

1
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Materials Performance, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Process Microbiology and Safety, 02150 Espoo, Finland
3
Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, 27160 Eurajoki, Finland
Current address: European Chemicals Agency, Biocides Unit, 00121 Helsinki, Finland
Current address: Fennovoima Oy, Essential Water Systems, 00180 Helsinki, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christine Bressy, Jean-François Briand, Gérald Culioli and André Margaillan
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8714 KB, uploaded 11 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Water cooling utilizing natural waters is typically used for cooling large industrial facilities such as power plants. The cooling water cycles are susceptible to biofouling and scaling, which may reduce heat transfer capacity and enhance corrosion. The performance of two fouling-release coatings combined with hypochlorite treatment were studied in a power plant utilizing brackish sea water from the Baltic Sea for cooling. The effect of hypochlorite as an antifouling biocide on material performance and species composition of microfouling formed on coated surfaces was studied during the summer and autumn. Microfouling on surfaces of the studied fouling-release coatings was intensive in the cooling water cycle during the warm summer months. As in most cases in a natural water environment the fouling consisted of both inorganic fouling and biofouling. Chlorination decreased the bacterial number on the surfaces by 10–1000 fold, but the efficacy depended on the coating. In addition to decreasing the bacterial number, the chlorination also changed the microbial species composition, forming the biofilm on the surfaces of two fouling-release coatings. TeknoTar coating was proven to be more efficient in combination with the hypochlorite treatment against microfouling under these experimental conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfouling; biofilm; cooling water; hypochlorite; fouling-release microfouling; biofilm; cooling water; hypochlorite; fouling-release
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rajala, P.; Sohlberg, E.; Priha, O.; Tsitko, I.; Väisänen, H.; Tausa, M.; Carpén, L. Biofouling on Coated Carbon Steel in Cooling Water Cycles Using Brackish Seawater. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 74.

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