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Erratum published on 10 April 2017, see J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2017, 5(2), 17.

Open AccessArticle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(3), 45; doi:10.3390/jmse4030045

Storm Surge Modeling in Large Estuaries: Sensitivity Analyses to Parameters and Physical Processes in the Chesapeake Bay

Department of Civil, Environmental and Infrastructure Engineering, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Harshinie Karunarathna and Jenifer Brown
Received: 5 May 2016 / Revised: 24 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling Waves in Coasts and Estuaries)
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Abstract

Large estuaries are especially vulnerable to coastal flooding due to the potential of combined storm surges and riverine flows. Numerical models can support flood prevention and planning for coastal communities. However, while recent advancements in the development of numerical models for storm surge prediction have led to robust and accurate models; an increasing number of parameters and physical processes’ representations are available to modelers and engineers. This study investigates uncertainties associated with the selection of physical parameters or processes involved in storm surge modeling in large estuaries. Specifically, we explored the sensitivity of a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) and a coupled wind-wave and circulation model system (ADCIRC + SWAN) to Manning’s n coefficient, wind waves and circulation interaction (wave setup), minimum depth (H0) in the wetting and drying algorithm, and spatially constant horizontal eddy viscosity (ESLM) forced by tides and hurricane winds. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis to Manning’s n coefficient and the interaction of waves and circulation were analyzed by using three different numerical meshes. Manning’s coefficient analysis was divided into waterway (rivers, bay and shore, and open ocean) and overland. Overall, the rivers exhibited a larger sensitivity, and M2 amplitude and maximum water elevations were reduced by 0.20 m and 0.56 m, respectively, by using a high friction value; similarly, high friction reduced maximum water levels up to 0.30 m in overland areas; the wave setup depended on the offshore wave height, angle of breaking, the profile morphology, and the mesh resolution, accounting for up to 0.19 m setup inside the bay; minimum depth analysis showed that H0 = 0.01 added an artificial mass of water in marshes and channels, meanwhile H = 0.1 partially solved this problem; and the eddy viscosity study demonstrated that the ESLM = 40 values reduced up to 0.40 m the peak of the maximum water levels in the upper side of narrow rivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chesapeake Bay; ADCIRC; Manning’s n value; wetting and dry; eddy viscosity; wave setup Chesapeake Bay; ADCIRC; Manning’s n value; wetting and dry; eddy viscosity; wave setup
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garzon, J.L.; Ferreira, C.M. Storm Surge Modeling in Large Estuaries: Sensitivity Analyses to Parameters and Physical Processes in the Chesapeake Bay. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 45.

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