J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2013, 1(1), 10-20; doi:10.3390/jmse1010010
Review

Detection of Oil in Ice and Snow

1,* email and 2email
Received: 23 October 2013; in revised form: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Oil Detection and Remediation in the Arctic Ocean)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The response to a major oil spill can be challenging in temperate climates and with good weather conditions. By contrast, a major spill in or under ice and snow, presents a whole new series of challenges. This paper reviews detection technologies for these challenging situations. A number of acoustic techniques have been tried in test tank situations and it was found that acoustic detection of oil was possible because oil behaves as a solid in acoustic terms and transmits shear waves. Laboratory tests have been carried out and a prototype was built and tested in the field. Radio frequency methods, such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been tested for both oil-under-ice and oil-under-snow. The GPR method does not provide sufficient discrimination for positive oil detection in actual spills. Preliminary tests on the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for detecting oil, in and under ice, shows promise and further work on this is being done at this time. A number of other oil-in-ice detection technologies have been tried and evaluated, including standard acoustic thickness probes, fluorosensor techniques, and augmented infrared detection. Each of these showed potential in theory during tank tests. Further testing on these proposed methods is required.
Keywords: oil-in-ice detection; remote sensing; oil detection; oil in snow and ice; Arctic oil detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E. Detection of Oil in Ice and Snow. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2013, 1, 10-20.

AMA Style

Fingas M, Brown CE. Detection of Oil in Ice and Snow. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2013; 1(1):10-20.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fingas, Merv; Brown, Carl E. 2013. "Detection of Oil in Ice and Snow." J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 1, no. 1: 10-20.

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