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Agriculture 2018, 8(7), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8070099

Durum Wheat Breeding: In the Heat of the Senegal River

1
International Center for the Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Rabat 10000, Morocco
2
Faculty of Science, University Mohammed V, Rabat 10100, Morocco
3
University Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar 12500, Senegal
4
Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Saint-Louis 46024, Senegal
5
Centre national de recherche agronomique et de développement agricole (CNARDA), Kaedi 40101, Mauritania
6
Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Institutionen för växtförädling (VF), Alnarp 23053, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 22 June 2018 / Accepted: 26 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Breeding in Agriculture)
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Abstract

Global warming may cause +4 °C temperature increases before the end of this century. Heat tolerant bred-germplasm remains the most promising method to ensure farm productivity under this scenario. A global set of 384 durum wheat accessions were exposed to very high temperatures occurring along the Senegal River at two sites for two years. The goal was to identify germplasm with enhanced tolerance to heat. There was significant variation for all traits. The genetic (G) effect accounted for >15% of the total variation, while the genotype by environment interaction (G × E) reached 25%. A selection index that combines G and a G × E wide adaptation index was used to identify stable high yielding germplasm. Forty-eight accessions had a stable grain yield above the average (2.7 t ha−1), with the three top lines above 3.5 t ha−1. Flowering time, spike fertility and harvest index were the most critical traits for heat tolerance, while 1000-kernel weight and spike density only had environment-specific effects. Testing of six subpopulations for grain yield across heat-prone sites revealed an even distribution among clusters, thus showing the potential of this panel for dissecting heat tolerance via association genetics. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptation to heat; Africa; AMMI; drylands; global warming; rice-wheat rotation adaptation to heat; Africa; AMMI; drylands; global warming; rice-wheat rotation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Sall, A.T.; Bassi, F.M.; Cisse, M.; Gueye, H.; Ndoye, I.; Filali-Maltouf, A.; Ortiz, R. Durum Wheat Breeding: In the Heat of the Senegal River. Agriculture 2018, 8, 99.

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