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Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1146-1171; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041146

Defoliation, Shoot Plasticity, Sward Structure and Herbage Utilization in Pasture: Review of the Underlying Ecophysiological Processes

1
INRA, Unité Expérimentale Fourrages Environnement Ruminants, INRA-FERLUS, CS 80006, Lusignan 86600, France
2
INRA, Unité de Recherche Prairies et Plantes Fourragères, INRA-URP3F, CS 80006, Lusignan 86600, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cory Matthew
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forage Plant Ecophysiology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [553 KB, uploaded 25 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

Sward structure affects herbage growth, pasture species dynamics, and herbage utilization. Defoliation management has a major impact on sward structure. In particular, tiller size-tiller density compensations allow for the maintenance of herbage growth. Tiller size and tiller density are determined by several major morphogenetical components. Defoliation affects these morphogenetical components, depending on its frequency and its intensity, through several direct and indirect physiological and environmental processes. Due to the implications of leaf area removal, defoliation has a direct effect on the mobilization of C and N reserves and their supply to growing leaves. In addition, defoliation has an indirect effect on leaf and tiller morphogenesis, due to its impact on the light environment within the canopy as well as plant responses to light signals (blue light, red far red ratio). Defoliation may also in some cases have a direct negative effect on leaf growth by damaging leaf meristems. Understanding the respective role of these various physiological and environmental processes requires studies where defoliation, photosynthetic active radiation and light signals are manipulated independently. Past and recent knowledge on these direct and indirect effects of defoliation on plant morphogenesis are discussed, leading to an overall integrated view of physiological and environmental processes that lead to adaptations of sward structure in response to defoliation management. Major consequences for herbage utilization efficiency are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: sward management; defoliation; leaf growth; tillering; light; grasses sward management; defoliation; leaf growth; tillering; light; grasses
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gastal, F.; Lemaire, G. Defoliation, Shoot Plasticity, Sward Structure and Herbage Utilization in Pasture: Review of the Underlying Ecophysiological Processes. Agriculture 2015, 5, 1146-1171.

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