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Agriculture 2015, 5(3), 400-411; doi:10.3390/agriculture5030400

Testing of Eight Medicinal Plant Extracts in Combination with Kresoxim-Methyl for Integrated Control of Botrytis cinerea in Apples

1
Molecular Biology and Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical BioSciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
2
Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Medical BioSciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Bellville 7535, South Africa
3
Fruit, Vine and Wine Institute of the Agricultural Research Council, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nieves Goicoechea
Received: 7 April 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 19 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [219 KB, uploaded 3 July 2015]

Abstract

Botrytis cinerea is a fungus that causes gray mold on many fruit crops. Despite the availability of a large number of botryticides, the chemical control of gray mold has been hindered by the emergence of resistant strains. In this paper, tests were done to determine the botryticidal efficacy of selected plant extracts alone or combined with kresoxim-methyl. In total, eight South African medicinal plants viz Artemisia afra, Elyptropappus rhinocerotis, Galenia africana, Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Siphonochilus aetheopicus, Sutherlandia frutescens, Tulbaghia violacea and Tulbaghia alliacea were screened. Allium sativum, a plant species known to have antifungal activity, was included in the in vivo studies. For the in vitro studies, synergistic interactions between the plant extracts and the kresoxim-methyl fungicide were tested with radial growth assays. Data indicated synergistic inhibitory effects between the fungicide and the plant extracts. Next, different doses of plant extracts combined with kresoxim-methyl were used for decay inhibition studies on Granny Smith apples. Synergistic and additive effects were observed for many of the combinations. Even though this study was done using only one strain of B. cinerea, results showed that the tested indigenous South African plant species possess natural compounds that potentiate the activity of kresoxim-methyl. View Full-Text
Keywords: Botrytis cinerea; gray mold; kresoxim-methyl; medicinal plants; plant extracts; strobilurin; fungicides Botrytis cinerea; gray mold; kresoxim-methyl; medicinal plants; plant extracts; strobilurin; fungicides
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fielding, B.C.; Knowles, C.-L.; Vries, F.A.; Klaasen, J.A. Testing of Eight Medicinal Plant Extracts in Combination with Kresoxim-Methyl for Integrated Control of Botrytis cinerea in Apples. Agriculture 2015, 5, 400-411.

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