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Soil Erosion from Agriculture and Mining: A Threat to Tropical Stream Ecosystems
River Culture (Fleuve et Patrimoine), Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Cities, Territories, Environment and Society (CNRS UMR CITERES), Université François Rabelais, Parc Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France
Department of Biology, Center for Agricultural Research in Suriname (CELOS), Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg, Paramaribo, Suriname
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2013; in revised form: 7 September 2013 / Accepted: 13 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Abstract: In tropical countries soil erosion is often increased due to high erodibility of geologically old and weathered soils; intensive rainfall; inappropriate soil management; removal of forest vegetation cover; and mining activities. Stream ecosystems draining agricultural or mining areas are often severely impacted by the high loads of eroded material entering the stream channel; increasing turbidity; covering instream habitat and affecting the riparian zone; and thereby modifying habitat and food web structures. The biodiversity is severely threatened by these negative effects as the aquatic and riparian fauna and flora are not adapted to cope with excessive rates of erosion and sedimentation. Eroded material may also be polluted by pesticides or heavy metals that have an aggravating effect on functions and ecosystem services. Loss of superficial material and deepening of erosion gullies impoverish the nutrient and carbon contents of the soils; and lower the water tables; causing a “lose-lose” situation for agricultural productivity and environmental integrity. Several examples show how to interrupt this vicious cycle by integrated catchment management and by combining “green” and “hard” engineering for habitat restoration. In this review; we summarize current findings on this issue from tropical countries with a focus on case studies from Suriname and Brazil.
Keywords: agricultural catchments; headwater stream; siltation; suspended sediment; turbidity; environmental impact; biodiversity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Wantzen, K.M.; Mol, J.H. Soil Erosion from Agriculture and Mining: A Threat to Tropical Stream Ecosystems. Agriculture 2013, 3, 660-683.
Wantzen KM, Mol JH. Soil Erosion from Agriculture and Mining: A Threat to Tropical Stream Ecosystems. Agriculture. 2013; 3(4):660-683.
Wantzen, Karl M.; Mol, Jan H. 2013. "Soil Erosion from Agriculture and Mining: A Threat to Tropical Stream Ecosystems." Agriculture 3, no. 4: 660-683.