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Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Rhode Island, West Kingston, RI 02892, USA
Department of Molecular Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2012; in revised form: 10 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 September 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
Abstract: Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro) from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13) for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare) as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.
Keywords: bioenergy; gene confinement; GM crops; transgenic plants; pollen sterility; regulatory concerns; agricultural regulation; environmental regulation; gametophyte; Oryza sativa
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hague, J.P.; Dellaporta, S.L.; Moreno, M.A.; Longo, C.; Nelson, K.; Kausch, A.P. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops. Agriculture 2012, 2, 295-315.
Hague JP, Dellaporta SL, Moreno MA, Longo C, Nelson K, Kausch AP. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops. Agriculture. 2012; 2(4):295-315.
Hague, Joel P.; Dellaporta, Stephen L.; Moreno, Maria A.; Longo, Chip; Nelson, Kimberly; Kausch, Albert P. 2012. "Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops." Agriculture 2, no. 4: 295-315.