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J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(10), 84; doi:10.3390/jcm5100084

Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

The Royal Marsden Hospital, NHS Foundation Trust, London SW3 6JJ, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael R. Hamblin
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Treatment of Esophageal Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [511 KB, uploaded 22 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1), anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4) trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-PD-1; anti-PD-L1; checkpoint inhibitor; ipilimumab; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; immunotherapy; pembrolizumab; nivolumab anti-PD-1; anti-PD-L1; checkpoint inhibitor; ipilimumab; esophageal cancer; gastric cancer; immunotherapy; pembrolizumab; nivolumab
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goode, E.F.; Smyth, E.C. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 84.

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