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J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/jcm5010002

MicroRNA Regulation of Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells

1
Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan
2
Division of Biochemistry, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan
3
Division of Medical Oncology/Hematology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650-0017, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Takahiro Ochiya and Ryou-u Takahashi
Received: 22 October 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 21 December 2015 / Published: 25 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Human Cancers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1536 KB, uploaded 25 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in virtually all biological processes, including stem cell maintenance, differentiation, and development. The dysregulation of miRNAs is associated with many human diseases including cancer. We have identified a set of miRNAs differentially expressed between human breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-tumorigenic cancer cells. In addition, these miRNAs are similarly upregulated or downregulated in normal mammary stem/progenitor cells. In this review, we mainly describe the miRNAs that are dysregulated in human breast CSCs directly isolated from clinical specimens. The miRNAs and their clusters, such as the miR-200 clusters, miR-183 cluster, miR-221-222 cluster, let-7, miR-142 and miR-214, target the genes and pathways important for stem cell maintenance, such as the self-renewal gene BMI1, apoptosis, Wnt signaling, Notch signaling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. In addition, the current evidence shows that metastatic breast CSCs acquire a phenotype that is different from the CSCs in a primary site. Thus, clarifying the miRNA regulation of the metastatic breast CSCs will further advance our understanding of the roles of human breast CSCs in tumor progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer stem cells; microRNA; Bmi1; Wnt signaling; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); metastasis cancer stem cells; microRNA; Bmi1; Wnt signaling; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); metastasis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shimono, Y.; Mukohyama, J.; Nakamura, S.-I.; Minami, H. MicroRNA Regulation of Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 2.

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