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Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Advances in Management and Diagnosis
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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(3), 425-440; doi:10.3390/jcm4030425

Small Drusen and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study

1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53726, USA
2
Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics and Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53726, USA
3
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
4
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lindsay Farrer and Margaret DeAngelis
Received: 15 January 2015 / Accepted: 24 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Age-Related Macular Disease)
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Abstract

We tested the hypothesis that large areas of small hard drusen (diameter <63 µm) and intermediate drusen (diameter 63–124 µm) are associated with the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Eyes of 3344 older adults with at least two consecutive visits spaced five years apart over a 20-year period were included. A 6-level severity scale, including no drusen, four levels of increasing area (from minimal (<2596 µm²) to large (>9086 µm²)) of only small hard drusen, and intermediate drusen, was used. The five-year incidence of AMD was 3% in eyes at the start of the interval with no, minimal, small, and moderate areas of only small drusen and 5% and 25% for eyes with large area of only small drusen and intermediate drusen, respectively. Compared to eyes with a moderate area of small drusen, the odds ratio (OR) of developing AMD in eyes with a large area of only small drusen was 1.8 (p < 0.001). Compared to eyes with large area of only small drusen, eyes with intermediate drusen had an OR of 5.5 (p < 0.001) of developing AMD. Our results are consistent with our hypothesis that large areas of only small drusen are associated with the incidence of AMD. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; epidemiology; genetic risk; incidence; retinal drusen; risk factors; size and area age-related macular degeneration; epidemiology; genetic risk; incidence; retinal drusen; risk factors; size and area
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Klein, R.; Myers, C.E.; Lee, K.E.; Gangnon, R.E.; Sivakumaran, T.A.; Iyengar, S.K.; Klein, B.E.K. Small Drusen and Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Beaver Dam Eye Study. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 425-440.

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