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J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3(2), 453-479; doi:10.3390/jcm3020453

The Roles of Vitamin A in the Regulation of Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism

Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 6 March 2014 / Accepted: 14 March 2014 / Published: 7 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obesity, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome)
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Abstract

Currently, two-thirds of American adults are overweight or obese. This high prevalence of overweight/obesity negatively affects the health of the population, as obese individuals tend to develop several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Due to obesity’s impact on health, medical costs, and longevity, the rise in the number of obese people has become a public health concern. Both genetic and environmental/dietary factors play a role in the development of metabolic diseases. Intuitively, it seems to be obvious to link over-nutrition to the development of obesity and other metabolic diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Dietary nutrients not only provide energy derived from macronutrients, but also factors such as micronutrients with regulatory roles. How micronutrients, such as vitamin A (VA; retinol), regulate macronutrient homeostasis is still an ongoing research topic. As an essential micronutrient, VA plays a key role in the general health of an individual. This review summarizes recent research progress regarding VA’s role in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. Due to the large amount of information regarding VA functions, this review focusses on metabolism in metabolic active organs and tissues. Additionally, some perspectives for future studies will be provided.
Keywords: vitamin A; glucose metabolism; lipid metabolism; protein metabolism; metabolic diseases vitamin A; glucose metabolism; lipid metabolism; protein metabolism; metabolic diseases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Chen, W.; Chen, G. The Roles of Vitamin A in the Regulation of Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism. J. Clin. Med. 2014, 3, 453-479.

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