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J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 264-282; doi:10.3390/jcm2040264
Review

The Roles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis: Potential Targets for Prevention and Treatment

Received: 20 September 2013; in revised form: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer)
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Abstract: Many studies have revealed molecular connections between breast and bone. Genes, important in the control of bone remodeling, such as receptor activator of nuclear kappa (RANK), receptor activator of nuclear kappa ligand (RANKL), vitamin D, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), and calcitonin, are expressed in breast cancer and lactating breast. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) effectors play critical roles during embryonic development, postnatal growth, and epithelial homeostasis, but also are involved in a number of pathological conditions, including wound repair, fibrosis, inflammation, as well as cancer progression and bone metastasis. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), insulin-like growth factor I & II (IGF I & II), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH(rP)), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epithelial growth factors II/I (ErbB/EGF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-11, IL-1, integrin αvβ3, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), catepsin K, hypoxia, notch, Wnt, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), and hedgehog signaling pathways are important EMT and MET effectors identified in the bone microenviroment facilitating bone metastasis formation. Recently, Runx2, an essential transcription factor in the regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation into the osteoblast lineage and proper bone development, is also well-recognized for its expression in breast cancer cells promoting osteolytic bone metastasis. Understanding the precise mechanisms of EMT and MET in the pathogenesis of breast cancer bone metastasis can inform the direction of therapeutic intervention and possibly prevention.
Keywords: breast cancer bone metastasis; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET); prevention; treatment breast cancer bone metastasis; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET); prevention; treatment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Demirkan, B. The Roles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis: Potential Targets for Prevention and Treatment. J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2, 264-282.

AMA Style

Demirkan B. The Roles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis: Potential Targets for Prevention and Treatment. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2013; 2(4):264-282.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Demirkan, Binnaz. 2013. "The Roles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis: Potential Targets for Prevention and Treatment." J. Clin. Med. 2, no. 4: 264-282.

J. Clin. Med. EISSN 2077-0383 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert