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Correction published on 10 December 2015, see J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(12), 1998.

J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(3), 151-175; doi:10.3390/jcm2030151

Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer

1 Supportive Care in Cancer Unit, Department of Haematology and Pediatric Onco-Haematology Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Milan 20133, Italy 2 Oncology Department, Radiation Oncology Centre, Santa Maria Hospital, Via T. di Joannuccio, Terni 05100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 24 September 2013
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In breast cancer patients, bone is the most common site of metastases. Medical therapies are the basic therapy to prevent distant metastases and recurrence and to cure them. Radiotherapy has a primary role in pain relief, recalcification and stabilization of the bone, as well as the reduction of the risk of complications (e.g., bone fractures, spinal cord compression). Bisphosphonates, as potent inhibitors of osteoclastic-mediated bone resorption are a well-established, standard-of-care treatment option to reduce the frequency, severity and time of onset of the skeletal related events in breast cancer patients with bone metastases. Moreover bisphosphonates prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss. Recent data shows the anti-tumor activity of bisphosphonates, in particular, in postmenopausal women and in older premenopausal women with hormone-sensitive disease treated with ovarian suppression. Pain is the most frequent symptom reported in patients with bone metastases, and its prevention and treatment must be considered at any stage of the disease. The prevention and treatment of bone metastases in breast cancer must consider an integrated multidisciplinary approach.
Keywords: breast cancer; bone metastases; radiotherapy; bisphosphonates; endocrine therapy; chemotherapy; bone pain relief breast cancer; bone metastases; radiotherapy; bisphosphonates; endocrine therapy; chemotherapy; bone pain relief
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ripamonti, C.; Trippa, F.; Barone, G.; Maranzano, E. Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases in Breast Cancer. J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2, 151-175.

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