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Membranes 2017, 7(3), 48; doi:10.3390/membranes7030048

Modeling and Design Optimization of Multifunctional Membrane Reactors for Direct Methane Aromatization

Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Transport Modeling)
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Due to the recent increase of natural gas production in the U.S., utilizing natural gas for higher-value chemicals has become imperative. Direct methane aromatization (DMA) is a promising process used to convert methane to benzene, but it is limited by low conversion of methane and rapid catalyst deactivation by coking. Past work has shown that membrane separation of the hydrogen produced in the DMA reactions can dramatically increase the methane conversion by shifting the equilibrium toward the products, but it also increases coke production. Oxygen introduction into the system has been shown to inhibit this coke production while not inhibiting the benzene production. This paper introduces a novel mathematical model and design to employ both methods in a multifunctional membrane reactor to push the DMA process into further viability. Multifunctional membrane reactors, in this case, are reactors where two different separations occur using two differently selective membranes, on which no systems studies have been found. The proposed multifunctional membrane design incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane on the outer wall of the reaction zone, and an inner tube filled with airflow surrounded by an oxygen-selective membrane in the middle of the reactor. The design is shown to increase conversion via hydrogen removal by around 100%, and decrease coke production via oxygen addition by 10% when compared to a tubular reactor without any membranes. Optimization studies are performed to determine the best reactor design based on methane conversion, along with coke and benzene production. The obtained optimal design considers a small reactor (length = 25 cm, diameter of reaction tube = 0.7 cm) to subvert coke production and consumption of the product benzene as well as a high permeance (0.01 mol/s·m2·atm1/4) through the hydrogen-permeable membrane. This modeling and design approach sets the stage for guiding further development of multifunctional membrane reactor models and designs for natural gas utilization and other chemical reaction systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: optimization; multifunctional membrane reactors; direct methane aromatization; natural gas utilization; modeling; design optimization; multifunctional membrane reactors; direct methane aromatization; natural gas utilization; modeling; design

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fouty, N.J.; Carrasco, J.C.; Lima, F.V. Modeling and Design Optimization of Multifunctional Membrane Reactors for Direct Methane Aromatization. Membranes 2017, 7, 48.

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