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Membranes 2016, 6(1), 18; doi:10.3390/membranes6010018

Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

1
Institute for Sustainability and Innovation, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, P.O. Box 14428, Melbourne, VIC 8001, Australia
2
College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Spas D. Kolev
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 1 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Membrane Processes (Applications))
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Abstract

This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceramic membrane; photocatalysis; humic acid; permeate flux; salinity ceramic membrane; photocatalysis; humic acid; permeate flux; salinity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, L.; Zhu, B.; Gray, S.; Duke, M.; Muthukumaran, S. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water. Membranes 2016, 6, 18.

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