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Membranes 2016, 6(1), 19; doi:10.3390/membranes6010019

Polishing Step Purification of High-Strength Wastewaters by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Animal Co-Products Research and Education Center, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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Academic Editor: Clàudia Fontàs
Received: 12 January 2016 / Revised: 19 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Membrane Processes (Applications))
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Abstract

This article reports findings on the use of nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for secondary treatment of high-strength rendering facility wastewaters following an ultrafiltration step. These wastewaters present significant challenges to classical treatment technologies. Constant-pressure, direct-flow membrane filtration experiments were done to screen for flux and effluent water permeate quality of ten commercial NF and RO membranes. All membranes tested were effective in reducing total dissolved salts (TDS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD); however, only two membranes (Koch MPF-34 and Toray 70UB) gave sufficiently stable flux values to warrant longer term cross-flow filtration studies. Cross-flow flux measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) indicated that both membranes were eventually fouled by organic and inorganic foulants; however, the Toray 70UB RO membrane yielded a capacity of 1600 L/m2 prior to cleaning. A preliminary economic analysis compared the estimated costs of energy and consumables for a dual-stage UF/RO membrane process and dissolved air floatation (DAF) and found membrane process costs could be less than about 40% of the current DAF process. View Full-Text
Keywords: impaired water; membrane fouling; sustainability; water treatment impaired water; membrane fouling; sustainability; water treatment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, J.; Baker, B.O.; Grimsley, C.T.; Husson, S.M. Polishing Step Purification of High-Strength Wastewaters by Nanofiltration and Reverse Osmosis. Membranes 2016, 6, 19.

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