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Membranes 2011, 1(2), 91-97; doi:10.3390/membranes1020091

Membrane Characterization by Microscopic and Scattering Methods: Multiscale Structure

1,* , 2
1 Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation et Procédés Propres (M2P2–CNRS UMR 6181), Université Paul Cézanne Aix Marseille, Europôle de l’Arbois, 13545 Aix en Provence Cedex 04, France 2 Institut FRESNEL (UMR 6133), Université Paul Cézanne Aix Marseille, Domaine Universitaire de St Jérôme, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France 3 Suez Environnement, CIRSEE, Pôle Qualité Eau, 38, rue du Président-Wilson, 78230 Le Pecq, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2011 / Revised: 22 March 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 13 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the AMS6/IMSTEC10 Conference)
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Several microscopic and scattering techniques at different observation scales (from atomic to macroscopic) were used to characterize both surface and bulk properties of four new flat-sheet polyethersulfone (PES) membranes (10, 30, 100 and 300 kDa) and new 100 kDa hollow fibers (PVDF). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with “in lens” detection was used to obtain information on the pore sizes of the skin layers at the atomic scale. White Light Interferometry (WLI) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) using different scales (for WLI: windows: 900 × 900 µm2 and 360 × 360 µm2; number of points: 1024; for AFM: windows: 50 × 50 µm2 and 5 × 5 µm2; number of points: 512) showed that the membrane roughness increases markedly with the observation scale and that there is a continuity between the different scan sizes for the determination of the RMS roughness. High angular resolution ellipsometric measurements were used to obtain the signature of each cut-off and the origin of the scattering was identified as coming from the membrane bulk.
Keywords: membrane; atomic force microscopy; white light interferometry; ellipsometry; roughness membrane; atomic force microscopy; white light interferometry; ellipsometry; roughness
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Tamime, R.; Wyart, Y.; Siozade, L.; Baudin, I.; Deumie, C.; Glucina, K.; Moulin, P. Membrane Characterization by Microscopic and Scattering Methods: Multiscale Structure. Membranes 2011, 1, 91-97.

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