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Methods for Measuring T-Cell Memory to Vaccination: From Mouse to Man
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Vaccines 2018, 6(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030050

Activation-induced Markers Detect Vaccine-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses Not Measured by Assays Conventionally Used in Clinical Trials

The Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK
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Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue T Cell Memory to Vaccination)
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Abstract

Immunogenicity of T cell-inducing vaccines, such as viral vectors or DNA vaccines and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), are frequently assessed by cytokine-based approaches. While these are sensitive methods that have shown correlates of protection in various vaccine studies, they only identify a small proportion of the vaccine-specific T cell response. Responses to vaccination are likely to be heterogeneous, particularly when comparing prime and boost or assessing vaccine performance across diverse populations. Activation-induced markers (AIM) can provide a broader view of the total antigen-specific T cell response to enable a more comprehensive evaluation of vaccine immunogenicity. We tested an AIM assay for the detection of vaccine-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in healthy UK adults vaccinated with viral vectored Ebola vaccine candidates, ChAd3-EBO-Z and MVA-EBO-Z. We used the markers, CD25, CD134 (OX40), CD274 (PDL1), and CD107a, to sensitively identify vaccine-responsive T cells. We compared the use of OX40+CD25+ and OX40+PDL1+ in CD4+ T cells and OX40+CD25+ and CD25+CD107a+ in CD8+ T cells for their sensitivity, specificity, and associations with other measures of vaccine immunogenicity. We show that activation-induced markers can be used as an additional method of demonstrating vaccine immunogenicity, providing a broader picture of the global T cell response to vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccines; activation-induced markers; antigen-specific T cells; viral vector; adenovirus; modified vaccinia virus Ankara; Ebola vaccines; activation-induced markers; antigen-specific T cells; viral vector; adenovirus; modified vaccinia virus Ankara; Ebola
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Bowyer, G.; Rampling, T.; Powlson, J.; Morter, R.; Wright, D.; Hill, A.V.; Ewer, K.J. Activation-induced Markers Detect Vaccine-Specific CD4+ T Cell Responses Not Measured by Assays Conventionally Used in Clinical Trials. Vaccines 2018, 6, 50.

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