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Vaccines 2014, 2(1), 1-14; doi:10.3390/vaccines2010001
Review

Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies

1,2, 2,3 and 1,2,3,*
1 Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA 2 The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA 3 Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Abstract

In this brief review, we discuss immune tolerance as a factor that determines the magnitude and quality of serum antibody responses to HIV-1 infection and vaccination in the context of recent work. We propose that many conserved, neutralizing epitopes of HIV-1 are weakly immunogenic because they mimic host antigens. In consequence, B cells that strongly bind these determinants are removed by the physiological process of immune tolerance. This structural mimicry may represent a significant impediment to designing protective HIV-1 vaccines, but we note that several vaccine strategies may be able to mitigate this evolutionary adaptation of HIV and other microbial pathogens.
Keywords: HIV-1 vaccines; immune tolerance; broadly neutralizing antibody; B-cell lineage design; HIV-1 vaccine strategy HIV-1 vaccines; immune tolerance; broadly neutralizing antibody; B-cell lineage design; HIV-1 vaccine strategy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kelsoe, G.; Verkoczy, L.; Haynes, B.F. Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies. Vaccines 2014, 2, 1-14.

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