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Vaccines 2014, 2(1), 1-14; doi:10.3390/vaccines2010001
Review

Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies

1,2, 2,3 and 1,2,3,*
Received: 16 October 2013; in revised form: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Abstract: In this brief review, we discuss immune tolerance as a factor that determines the magnitude and quality of serum antibody responses to HIV-1 infection and vaccination in the context of recent work. We propose that many conserved, neutralizing epitopes of HIV-1 are weakly immunogenic because they mimic host antigens. In consequence, B cells that strongly bind these determinants are removed by the physiological process of immune tolerance. This structural mimicry may represent a significant impediment to designing protective HIV-1 vaccines, but we note that several vaccine strategies may be able to mitigate this evolutionary adaptation of HIV and other microbial pathogens.
Keywords: HIV-1 vaccines; immune tolerance; broadly neutralizing antibody; B-cell lineage design; HIV-1 vaccine strategy HIV-1 vaccines; immune tolerance; broadly neutralizing antibody; B-cell lineage design; HIV-1 vaccine strategy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kelsoe, G.; Verkoczy, L.; Haynes, B.F. Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies. Vaccines 2014, 2, 1-14.

AMA Style

Kelsoe G, Verkoczy L, Haynes BF. Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies. Vaccines. 2014; 2(1):1-14.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kelsoe, Garnett; Verkoczy, Laurent; Haynes, Barton F. 2014. "Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies." Vaccines 2, no. 1: 1-14.

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