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Vaccines 2014, 2(1), 1-14; doi:10.3390/vaccines2010001
Review

Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies

1,2, 2,3 and 1,2,3,*
1 Department of Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA 2 The Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA 3 Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2013 / Revised: 15 November 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Abstract

In this brief review, we discuss immune tolerance as a factor that determines the magnitude and quality of serum antibody responses to HIV-1 infection and vaccination in the context of recent work. We propose that many conserved, neutralizing epitopes of HIV-1 are weakly immunogenic because they mimic host antigens. In consequence, B cells that strongly bind these determinants are removed by the physiological process of immune tolerance. This structural mimicry may represent a significant impediment to designing protective HIV-1 vaccines, but we note that several vaccine strategies may be able to mitigate this evolutionary adaptation of HIV and other microbial pathogens.
Keywords: HIV-1 vaccines; immune tolerance; broadly neutralizing antibody; B-cell lineage design; HIV-1 vaccine strategy HIV-1 vaccines; immune tolerance; broadly neutralizing antibody; B-cell lineage design; HIV-1 vaccine strategy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Kelsoe, G.; Verkoczy, L.; Haynes, B.F. Immune System Regulation in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies. Vaccines 2014, 2, 1-14.

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