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Antioxidants 2018, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7010010

Long-Chain Metabolites of Vitamin E: Metabolic Activation as a General Concept for Lipid-Soluble Vitamins?

1
Department of Biochemistry and Physiology of Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany
2
Competence Center for Nutrition and Cardiovascular Health (nutriCARD), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, 07743 Jena, Germany
3
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne VIC 3004, Australia
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Nutrition and Clinical Biochemistry, University of Perugia, 06123 Perugia, Italy
5
Department of Nutrition, Food and Consumer Sciences, University of Applied Sciences Fulda, 36037 Fulda, Germany
These authors contributed equally.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin E)
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Abstract

Vitamins E, A, D and K comprise the class of lipid-soluble vitamins. For vitamins A and D, a metabolic conversion of precursors to active metabolites has already been described. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites (LCMs) 13′-hydroxychromanol (13′-OH) and 13′-carboxychromanol (13′-COOH) are formed by oxidative modification of the side-chain. The occurrence of these metabolites in human serum indicates a physiological relevance. Indeed, effects of the LCMs on lipid metabolism, apoptosis, proliferation and inflammatory actions as well as tocopherol and xenobiotic metabolism have been shown. Interestingly, there are several parallels between the actions of the LCMs of vitamin E and the active metabolites of vitamin A and D. The recent findings that the LCMs exert effects different from that of their precursors support their putative role as regulatory metabolites. Hence, it could be proposed that the mode of action of the LCMs might be mediated by a mechanism similar to vitamin A and D metabolites. If the physiological relevance and this concept of action of the LCMs can be confirmed, a general concept of activation of lipid-soluble vitamins via their metabolites might be deduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; long-chain metabolites of vitamin E; 13′-hydroxychromanol (13′-OH); 13′-carboxychromanol (13′-COOH); vitamin E metabolism; biological activity vitamin E; long-chain metabolites of vitamin E; 13′-hydroxychromanol (13′-OH); 13′-carboxychromanol (13′-COOH); vitamin E metabolism; biological activity
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Schubert, M.; Kluge, S.; Schmölz, L.; Wallert, M.; Galli, F.; Birringer, M.; Lorkowski, S. Long-Chain Metabolites of Vitamin E: Metabolic Activation as a General Concept for Lipid-Soluble Vitamins? Antioxidants 2018, 7, 10.

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