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Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 84; doi:10.3390/antiox6040084

Effects of Cocoa Antioxidants in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1
Department of Metabolism and Nutrition. Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition (ICTAN-CSIC). José Antonio Novais 10. Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Spanish Biomedical Research Centre in Diabetes and Associated Metabolic Disorders (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [274 KB, uploaded 31 October 2017]

Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2D) is the most common form of diabetes and one of the most common chronic diseases. Control of hyperglycaemia by hypoglycaemic drugs is insufficient in for patients and nutritional approaches are currently being explored. Natural dietary compounds such as flavonoids, abundant in fruits and vegetables, have received broad attention because of their potential capacity to act as anti-diabetic agents. Especially cocoa flavonoids have been proved to ameliorate important hallmarks of T2D. In this review, an update of the most relevant reports published during the last decade in cell culture, animal models and human studies is presented. Most results support an anti-diabetic effect of cocoa flavonoids by enhancing insulin secretion, improving insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, exerting a lipid-lowering effect and preventing the oxidative and inflammatory damages associated to the disease. While it could be suggested that daily consumption of flavanols from cocoa or dark chocolate would constitute a potential preventive tool useful for the nutritional management of T2D, this recommendation should be cautious since most of commercially available soluble cocoa products or chocolates contain low amount of flavanols and are rich in sugar and calories that may aggravate glycaemic control in T2D patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: beta cell; cocoa flavonoids; flavanols; hyperglycaemia; insulin resistance; procyanidins beta cell; cocoa flavonoids; flavanols; hyperglycaemia; insulin resistance; procyanidins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ramos, S.; Martín, M.A.; Goya, L. Effects of Cocoa Antioxidants in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 84.

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