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Antioxidants 2017, 6(4), 82; doi:10.3390/antiox6040082

On the Origin of Superoxide Dismutase: An Evolutionary Perspective of Superoxide-Mediated Redox Signaling

Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985850 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Enzymes, Mimetics and Oxygen Radicals)
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Abstract

The field of free radical biology originated with the discovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in 1969. Over the last 5 decades, a plethora of research has been performed in species ranging from bacteria to mammals that has elucidated the molecular reaction, subcellular location, and specific isoforms of SOD. However, while humans have only begun to study this class of enzymes over the past 50 years, it has been estimated that these enzymes have existed for billions of years, and may be some of the original enzymes found in primitive life. As life evolved over this expanse of time, these enzymes have taken on new and different functional roles potentially in contrast to how they were originally derived. Herein, examination of the evolutionary history of these enzymes provides both an explanation and further inquiries into the modern-day role of SOD in physiology and disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: redox biology; redox signaling; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; oxygen; nitric oxide; evolution; great oxidation event; adaptation; metabolism; iron; copper; zinc; manganese; nickel redox biology; redox signaling; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; oxygen; nitric oxide; evolution; great oxidation event; adaptation; metabolism; iron; copper; zinc; manganese; nickel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Case, A.J. On the Origin of Superoxide Dismutase: An Evolutionary Perspective of Superoxide-Mediated Redox Signaling. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 82.

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