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Antioxidants 2016, 5(4), 38; doi:10.3390/antiox5040038

RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Erzincan University, Erzincan 24100, Turkey
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Bingol University, Bingol 12000, Turkey
3
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Muş Alparslan University, Muş 49250, Turkey
4
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Dicle University, Diyarbakır 21280, Turkey
5
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Atatürk University, Erzurum 25240, Turkey
6
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
7
Department of Nursing, School of Health, Muş Alparslan University, Mus 49250, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Farid Chemat and Maryline Abert-Vian
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract

The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three Salvia L. species namely S. brachyantha (Bordz.) Pobed, S. aethiopis L., and S. microstegia Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu2+) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of Salvia species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in S. microstegia and rosmarinic acids in S. brachyantha and S aethiopis. The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, p-coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of Salvia species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. S. brachyantha and S. microstegia showed the highest antimicrobial activities against B. subtilis, whereas S. aethiopis was more effective on Y. lipolytica. None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against S. cerevisiae. Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salvia L. species; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; HPLC-MS/MS; phenolic compounds Salvia L. species; antioxidant activity; antimicrobial activity; HPLC-MS/MS; phenolic compounds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tohma, H.; Köksal, E.; Kılıç, Ö.; Alan, Y.; Yılmaz, M.A.; Gülçin, İ.; Bursal, E.; Alwasel, S.H. RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 38.

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