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Antioxidants 2016, 5(2), 15; doi:10.3390/antiox5020015

Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine

1
Material Measurement Laboratory—Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
2
Material Measurement Laboratory—Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
3
Material Measurement Laboratory—Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vytas Reipa
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 8 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 17 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterial Oxidative Stress)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [290 KB, uploaded 17 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Previously, catalytic cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, nanoceria, CeO2-x NPs) have been widely utilized for chemical mechanical planarization in the semiconductor industry and for reducing harmful emissions and improving fuel combustion efficiency in the automobile industry. Researchers are now harnessing the catalytic repertoire of CNPs to develop potential new treatment modalities for both oxidative- and nitrosative-stress induced disorders and diseases. In order to reach the point where our experimental understanding of the antioxidant activity of CNPs can be translated into useful therapeutics in the clinic, it is necessary to evaluate the most current evidence that supports CNP antioxidant activity in biological systems. Accordingly, the aims of this review are three-fold: (1) To describe the putative reaction mechanisms and physicochemical surface properties that enable CNPs to both scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to act as antioxidant enzyme-like mimetics in solution; (2) To provide an overview, with commentary, regarding the most robust design and synthesis pathways for preparing CNPs with catalytic antioxidant activity; (3) To provide the reader with the most up-to-date in vitro and in vivo experimental evidence supporting the ROS-scavenging potential of CNPs in biology and medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoceria; cerium oxide nanoparticles; reactive oxygen species; enzyme mimetics; redox-cycling nanoceria; cerium oxide nanoparticles; reactive oxygen species; enzyme mimetics; redox-cycling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nelson, B.C.; Johnson, M.E.; Walker, M.L.; Riley, K.R.; Sims, C.M. Antioxidant Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles in Biology and Medicine. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 15.

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