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Antioxidants 2015, 4(3), 447-481; doi:10.3390/antiox4030447

Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

1
Department of Physiology, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology "José Mataix", Biomedical Research Center (CIBM), University of Granada, Armilla, Avda. del Conocimiento s.n., 18100 Armilla, Spain
2
Department of Periodontology, Dental School, University of Sevilla, C/Avicena s.n., 41009 Sevilla, Spain
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona 60100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 9 March 2015 / Revised: 28 May 2015 / Accepted: 29 May 2015 / Published: 24 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants and Periodontal Diseases)
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Abstract

One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ), mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: anti-inflammatories; phytochemical; periodontitis; polyphenols anti-inflammatories; phytochemical; periodontitis; polyphenols
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Varela-López, A.; Bullón, P.; Giampieri, F.; Quiles, J.L. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases. Antioxidants 2015, 4, 447-481.

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