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Antioxidants 2014, 3(4), 814-829; doi:10.3390/antiox3040814

An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

1
School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
2
Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University Global Campus, Incheon 406-840, Korea
3
Central Coast Primary Industries Centre, NSW Department of Primary Industries, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 2 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
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Abstract

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC). The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol) for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C), time (5 min), water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g), particle size (1 mm) and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×), the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g) and less time (5 min) were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h). Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon. View Full-Text
Keywords: bitter melon; phenolic compounds; antioxidant capacity; aqueous extraction; organic solvents bitter melon; phenolic compounds; antioxidant capacity; aqueous extraction; organic solvents
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, S.P.; Stathopoulos, C.; Parks, S.; Roach, P. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity. Antioxidants 2014, 3, 814-829.

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