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Antioxidants 2012, 1(1), 4-32; doi:10.3390/antiox1010004
Article

The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Fermentation on Antioxidant Properties of Selected in Vitro Sprout Culture of Orthosiphon aristatus (Java Tea) as a Model Study

1,2,* , 3
,
1
 and
1,4
1 Department Method in Food Biotechnology, Institute of Food Technology and Food Chemistry, Berlin University of Technology, Königin-Luise Str. 22, 14195 Berlin, Germany 2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia 3 Institute of Biotechnology, Laboratory of Bioprocess Engineering, Berlin University of Technology Ackerstr. 71-76, 13355 Berlin, Germany 4 Department of Plant Food Processing, University of Applied Science Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Steingruber Str. 2, 91746 Weidenbach, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012
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Abstract

High rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity has been achieved by applying jasmonic acid and yeast extract elicitors to the in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aritatus (IOSC). The highest RA accumulation from three solvents was detected in IOSC after treatment with yeast extract (5 g/L). HPLC analysis clearly confirmed a drastic increase in RA subjected to yeast extract elicitation. Therefore, this yeast extract elicited IOSC was chosen for a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation study as a model system. This selected IOSC was subjected to different types of LAB fermentations (Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) for different periods of time 24, 48 and 72 h. The LAB fermentations consisted of solid state fermentations (SSF) and liquid state fermentations (LSF) in a Digital Control Unit (DCU) fermenter system. The aim was to determine the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant properties of the plant extract. Results indicated that all types of LAB fermentation decreased the level of RA and total phenolics, however, a slight increase in total flavonoids and flavonols was observed in SSF samples. HPLC results confirmed that the longer the fermentation, the greater the reduction in RA content. The highest reduction was obtained in the sample of LSF inoculated with L. plantarum for a period of 72 h. The temperature of fermentation (37 °C) was predicted as contributing to the declining level in RA content. The loss in RA was concomitant with a loss of total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-like activity). These results indicate that RA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of this plant.
Keywords: antioxidant; Orthosiphon aristatus; fermentation; in vitro sprout culture antioxidant; Orthosiphon aristatus; fermentation; in vitro sprout culture
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hunaefi, D.; Akumo, D.N.; Riedel, H.; Smetanska, I. The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Fermentation on Antioxidant Properties of Selected in Vitro Sprout Culture of Orthosiphon aristatus (Java Tea) as a Model Study. Antioxidants 2012, 1, 4-32.

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