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From the third issue of 2017, Microarrays has changed its name to High-Throughput.

Open AccessArticle
Microarrays 2015, 4(1), 25-40; doi:10.3390/microarrays4010025

Transcriptome Analysis of Porphyrin-Accumulated and X-Ray-Irradiated Cell Cultures under Limited Proliferation and Non-Lethal Conditions

1
Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566, Japan
2
Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564, Japan
3
Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University, Gifu, Gifu 501-1193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2014 / Revised: 13 January 2015 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 27 January 2015
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Abstract

5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a precursor of the photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy. It accumulates in tumor cells and subsequently metabolizes to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which generates singlet oxygen after light irradiation. PpIX enhances the generation of reactive oxygen species following physicochemical interactions with X-rays. ALA-based treatment using fractionated doses of irradiation suppressed tumor growth in a mouse melanoma model. To study the transcriptomic effects of PpIX, microarray analyses were conducted using HeLa cells with limited proliferation capacity. Based on the p-values (p < 0.01), we selected genes showing altered expression in each treatment group with reference to the non-treatment (NT) group. We detected 290, 196 and 28 upregulated genes, as well as 203, 146 and 36 downregulated genes after a 6 h-long PpIX treatment (1 μg/mL) prior to 3 Gy X-ray irradiation (PpIX-XT), 3 Gy X-ray irradiation alone (XT) and PpIX treatment alone (PpIXT), respectively. Functional analysis revealed that a majority of the regulated genes in the XT and PpIX-XT groups were related to cell-cycle arrest. The XT and PpIX-XT groups differed in the quantity, but not in the quality of their gene expression. The combined effect of PpIX and X-ray irradiation sensitized HeLa cells to X-ray treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiotherapy; X-ray; sensitizer; photodynamic therapy; 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA); protoporphyrin IX (PpIX); cancer; microarray radiotherapy; X-ray; sensitizer; photodynamic therapy; 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA); protoporphyrin IX (PpIX); cancer; microarray
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Takahashi, J.; Misawa, M.; Iwahashi, H. Transcriptome Analysis of Porphyrin-Accumulated and X-Ray-Irradiated Cell Cultures under Limited Proliferation and Non-Lethal Conditions. Microarrays 2015, 4, 25-40.

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