Next Article in Journal
Transcriptome Analysis of Porphyrin-Accumulated and X-Ray-Irradiated Cell Cultures under Limited Proliferation and Non-Lethal Conditions
Next Article in Special Issue
Cancer–Osteoblast Interaction Reduces Sost Expression in Osteoblasts and Up-Regulates lncRNA MALAT1 in Prostate Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Microarrays in 2014
Previous Article in Special Issue
t-Test at the Probe Level: An Alternative Method to Identify Statistically Significant Genes for Microarray Data
Article Menu

Export Article

From the third issue of 2017, Microarrays has changed its name to High-Throughput.

Open AccessArticle
Microarrays 2015, 4(1), 2-24; doi:10.3390/microarrays4010002

Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38

1
Division of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, School of Pharmacy, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
2
Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan
3
Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
4
Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Neuroendocrinology, Institute of Health and Sports Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8574, Japan
5
Organization for Educational Initiatives, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xin Ma
Received: 31 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2015 / Published: 21 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microarray Gene Expression Data Analysis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3653 KB, uploaded 21 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Our group has been systematically investigating the effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain. To do so, we have established and utilized the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model, in which PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection is given intracerebroventrically and compared to a control saline (0.9% sodium chloride, NaCl) injection, to unravel genome‑wide gene expression changes using a high-throughput DNA microarray analysis approach. In our previous studies, we have accumulated a large volume of data (gene inventory) from the whole brain (ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres) after both PMCAO and post-PACAP38 injection. In our latest research, we have targeted specifically infarct or ischemic core (hereafter abbreviated IC) and penumbra (hereafter abbreviated P) post-PACAP38 injections in order to re-examine the transcriptome at 6 and 24 h post injection. The current study aims to delineate the specificity of expression and localization of differentially expressed molecular factors influenced by PACAP38 in the IC and P regions. Utilizing the mouse 4 × 44 K whole genome DNA chip we show numerous changes (≧/≦ 1.5/0.75-fold) at both 6 h (654 and 456, and 522 and 449 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) and 24 h (2568 and 2684, and 1947 and 1592 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) after PACAP38 treatment. Among the gene inventories obtained here, two genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and transthyretin (Ttr) were found to be induced by PACAP38 treatment, which we had not been able to identify previously using the whole hemisphere transcriptome analysis. Using bioinformatics analysis by pathway- or specific-disease-state focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) the differentially expressed genes are functionally classified and discussed. Among these, we specifically discuss some novel and previously identified genes, such as alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein (Ahsp), cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (Camp), chemokines, interferon beta 1 (Ifnb1), and interleukin 6 (Il6) in context of PACAP38-mediated neuroprotection in the ischemic brain. Taken together, the DNA microarray analysis provides not only a great resource for further study, but also reinforces the importance of region-specific analyses in genome-wide identification of target molecular factors that might play a role in the neuroprotective function of PACAP38. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic core; penumbra; PACAP38; differential gene expression; Ahsp; Ttr ischemic core; penumbra; PACAP38; differential gene expression; Ahsp; Ttr
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hori, M.; Nakamachi, T.; Shibato, J.; Rakwal, R.; Shioda, S.; Numazawa, S. Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38. Microarrays 2015, 4, 2-24.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Microarrays EISSN 2076-3905 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top