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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(8), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8080149

Individualized Immunological Data for Precise Classification of OCD Patients

1
Centre Hospitalier Intercommunal de Créteil, 94000 Créteil, France
2
Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Epinière, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, INSERM, 75013 Paris, France
3
Fondation FondaMental, 94000 Créteil, France
4
Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Pôle de Psychiatrie, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor—Albert Chenevier, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 94000 Créteil, France
5
INSERM, U955, Team 15, 94000 Créteil, France
6
Department of Mental Health and Psychiatry, Global Health Institute, University of Geneva, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Major Depression)
Full-Text   |   PDF [317 KB, uploaded 9 August 2018]

Abstract

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) affects about 2% of the general population, for which several etiological factors were identified. Important among these is immunological dysfunction. This review aims to show how immunology can inform specific etiological factors, and how distinguishing between these etiologies is important from a personalized treatment perspective. We found discrepancies concerning cytokines, raising the hypothesis of specific immunological etiological factors. Antibody studies support the existence of a potential autoimmune etiological factor. Infections may also provoke OCD symptoms, and therefore, could be considered as specific etiological factors with specific immunological impairments. Finally, we underline the importance of distinguishing between different etiological factors since some specific treatments already exist in the context of immunological factors for the improvement of classic treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychiatry; OCD; obsessive–compulsive disorder; Tourette syndrome; immunology; cytokines; pediatric autoimmune neuropsychological disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS); pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS); Toxoplasma gondii; Streptococcus pyogenes psychiatry; OCD; obsessive–compulsive disorder; Tourette syndrome; immunology; cytokines; pediatric autoimmune neuropsychological disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS); pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS); Toxoplasma gondii; Streptococcus pyogenes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lamothe, H.; Baleyte, J.-M.; Smith, P.; Pelissolo, A.; Mallet, L. Individualized Immunological Data for Precise Classification of OCD Patients. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 149.

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