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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(7), 84; doi:10.3390/brainsci7070084

Structural and Functional Neuroimaging of Visual Hallucinations in Lewy Body Disease: A Systematic Literature Review

1
Department of Neuroscience, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK
2
Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, 35128 Padua, Italy
3
Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Fondazione Ospedale San Camillo, 30126 Venice, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Steven Frucht and Pichet Termsarasab
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology and Genetics of Movement Disorders)
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Abstract

Patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) frequently experience visual hallucinations (VH), well-formed images perceived without the presence of real stimuli. The structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying VH in LBD are still unclear. The present review summarises the current literature on the neural correlates of VH in LBD, namely Parkinson’s disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Following a systematic literature search, 56 neuroimaging studies of VH in PD and DLB were critically reviewed and evaluated for quality assessment. The main structural neuroimaging results on VH in LBD revealed grey matter loss in frontal areas in patients with dementia, and parietal and occipito-temporal regions in PD without dementia. Parietal and temporal hypometabolism was also reported in hallucinating PD patients. Disrupted functional connectivity was detected especially in the default mode network and fronto-parietal regions. However, evidence on structural and functional connectivity is still limited and requires further investigation. The current literature is in line with integrative models of VH suggesting a role of attention and perception deficits in the development of VH. However, despite the close relationship between VH and cognitive impairment, its associations with brain structure and function have been explored only by a limited number of studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: visual hallucinations; Lewy body; Parkinson’s disease; Parkinson’s disease dementia; dementia with Lewy bodies; MRI; fMRI; DTI; PET; SPECT visual hallucinations; Lewy body; Parkinson’s disease; Parkinson’s disease dementia; dementia with Lewy bodies; MRI; fMRI; DTI; PET; SPECT
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pezzoli, S.; Cagnin, A.; Bandmann, O.; Venneri, A. Structural and Functional Neuroimaging of Visual Hallucinations in Lewy Body Disease: A Systematic Literature Review. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 84.

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