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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(6), 62; doi:10.3390/brainsci7060062

Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons

1
Normandie University, UNIROUEN, INSERM, Regional Cell Imaging Platform of Normandy (PRIMACEN), 76000 Rouen, France
2
Department of Neurophysiology, Donders Centre for Neuroscience, Radboud University, Nijmegen 6525 AJ, The Netherlands
3
Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kazuhito Toyooka
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuronal Migration and Cortical Development)
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Abstract

Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer). During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location. In addition, cortical-layer specific regulatory factors such as neuropeptides (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), somatostatin) or proteins (tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1)) have been shown to inhibit or stimulate the migratory process of interneurons. These factors show further complexity because somatostatin, PACAP, or tPA have opposite or no effect on interneuron migration depending on which layer or cell type they act upon. External factors originating from environmental conditions (light stimuli, pollutants), nutrients or drug of abuse (alcohol) also alter normal cell migration, leading to cerebellar disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: cerebellum; postnatal development; migration; interneuron; granule cell; basket cell; stellate cell; live-cell imaging; neuropeptides; extracellular matrix; environmental conditions; nutrients; drug of abuse; cerebellar disorders cerebellum; postnatal development; migration; interneuron; granule cell; basket cell; stellate cell; live-cell imaging; neuropeptides; extracellular matrix; environmental conditions; nutrients; drug of abuse; cerebellar disorders
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Galas, L.; Bénard, M.; Lebon, A.; Komuro, Y.; Schapman, D.; Vaudry, H.; Vaudry, D.; Komuro, H. Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 62.

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