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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(2), 20; doi:10.3390/brainsci7020020

The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline

Research & Development Department, Skin Biology, 4122 Factoria Boulevard SE Suite No. 200 Bellevue, WA 98006, USA
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Academic Editor: Kamen Tsvetanov
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 15 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk and Protective Factors for Neurocognitive Aging)
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Abstract

Neurodegeneration, the progressive death of neurons, loss of brain function, and cognitive decline is an increasing problem for senior populations. Its causes are poorly understood and therapies are largely ineffective. Neurons, with high energy and oxygen requirements, are especially vulnerable to detrimental factors, including age-related dysregulation of biochemical pathways caused by altered expression of multiple genes. GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a human copper-binding peptide with biological actions that appear to counter aging-associated diseases and conditions. GHK, which declines with age, has health promoting effects on many tissues such as chondrocytes, liver cells and human fibroblasts, improves wound healing and tissue regeneration (skin, hair follicles, stomach and intestinal linings, boney tissue), increases collagen, decorin, angiogenesis, and nerve outgrowth, possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pain and anti-anxiety effects, increases cellular stemness and the secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. Studies using the Broad Institute Connectivity Map show that GHK peptide modulates expression of multiple genes, resetting pathological gene expression patterns back to health. GHK has been recommended as a treatment for metastatic cancer, Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, inflammation, acute lung injury, activating stem cells, pain, and anxiety. Here, we present GHK’s effects on gene expression relevant to the nervous system health and function. View Full-Text
Keywords: GHK; copper; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; neurons; glial cells; DNA repair; anti-oxidant; anti-anxiety; anti-pain GHK; copper; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; neurons; glial cells; DNA repair; anti-oxidant; anti-anxiety; anti-pain
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Pickart, L.; Vasquez-Soltero, J.M.; Margolina, A. The Effect of the Human Peptide GHK on Gene Expression Relevant to Nervous System Function and Cognitive Decline. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 20.

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