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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 139; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100139

Investigation of Sex Differences in the Microglial Response to Binge Ethanol and Exercise

1
Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
2
Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Induced Central Nervous System Damage)
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Abstract

The female brain appears selectively vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol, but the reasons for this are unclear. One possibility is an exaggerated neuroimmune response in the female brain, such that alcohol increases microglia number and reactivity to subsequent stimuli, such as exercise. It is important to better characterize the interactive neural effects of alcohol and exercise, as exercise is increasingly being used in the treatment of alcohol use disorders. The present study compared the number of microglia and evidence of their activation in alcohol-vulnerable regions of the brain (medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus) in male and female rats following binge alcohol and/or exercise. Binge alcohol increased microglia number and morphological characteristics consistent with their activation in the female brain but not the male, regardless of exercise. Binge alcohol followed by exercise did increase the number of MHC II+ (immunocompetent) microglia in females, although the vast majority of microglia did not express MHC II. These results indicate that binge alcohol exerts sex-specific effects on microglia that may result in enhanced reactivity to a subsequent challenge and in part underlie the apparent selective vulnerability of the female brain to alcohol. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; hippocampus; medial prefrontal cortex; microglial priming; MHC II alcohol; hippocampus; medial prefrontal cortex; microglial priming; MHC II
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Barton, E.A.; Baker, C.; Leasure, J.L. Investigation of Sex Differences in the Microglial Response to Binge Ethanol and Exercise. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 139.

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