Rumination and Rebound from Failure as a Function of Gender and Time on Task
AbstractRumination is a trait response to blocked goals that can have positive or negative outcomes for goal resolution depending on where attention is focused. Whereas “moody brooding” on affective states may be maladaptive, especially for females, “reflective pondering” on concrete strategies for problem solving may be more adaptive. In the context of a challenging general knowledge test, we examined how Brooding and Reflection rumination styles predicted students’ subjective and event-related responses (ERPs) to negative feedback, as well as use of this feedback to rebound from failure on a later surprise retest. For females only, Brooding predicted unpleasant feelings after failure as the task progressed. It also predicted enhanced attention to errors through both bottom-up and top-down processes, as indexed by increased early (400–600 ms) and later (600–1000 ms) late positive potentials (LPP), respectively. Reflection, despite increasing females’ initial attention to negative feedback (i.e., early LPP), as well as both genders’ recurring negative thoughts, did not result in sustained top-down attention (i.e., late LPP) or enhanced negative feelings toward errors. Reflection also facilitated rebound from failure in both genders, although Brooding did not hinder it. Implications of these gender and time-related rumination effects for learning in challenging academic situations are discussed. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
DOCX-Document (DOCX, 1129 KB)
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Whiteman, R.C.; Mangels, J.A. Rumination and Rebound from Failure as a Function of Gender and Time on Task. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 7.
Whiteman RC, Mangels JA. Rumination and Rebound from Failure as a Function of Gender and Time on Task. Brain Sciences. 2016; 6(1):7.Chicago/Turabian Style
Whiteman, Ronald C.; Mangels, Jennifer A. 2016. "Rumination and Rebound from Failure as a Function of Gender and Time on Task." Brain Sci. 6, no. 1: 7.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.