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Brain Sci. 2015, 5(2), 92-117; doi:10.3390/brainsci5020092

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Fragile X Syndrome (FXS): Two Overlapping Disorders Reviewed through Electroencephalography—What Can be Interpreted from the Available Information?

1,2,* , 1,3,4,5,6
and
1,2,3,7
1
School of Medicine, Trinity College, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
2
Trinity Centre for Bioengineering, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
3
Trinity College Institute for Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
4
Department of Psychiatry, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
5
Institute of Molecular Medicine, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
6
Linn Dara Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Cherry Orchard Hospital Dublin 10, Dublin, Ireland
7
School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, the University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaoming Wang
Received: 16 February 2015 / Revised: 11 March 2015 / Accepted: 17 March 2015 / Published: 27 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [179 KB, uploaded 27 March 2015]

Abstract

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are neurodevelopmental disorders with different but potentially related neurobiological underpinnings, which exhibit significant overlap in their behavioural symptoms. FXS is a neurogenetic disorder of known cause whereas ASD is a complex genetic disorder, with both rare and common genetic risk factors and likely genetic and environmental interaction effects. A comparison of the phenotypic presentation of the two disorders may highlight those symptoms that are more likely to be under direct genetic control, for example in FXS as opposed to shared symptoms that are likely to be under the control of multiple mechanisms. This review is focused on the application and analysis of electroencephalography data (EEG) in ASD and FXS. Specifically, Event Related Potentials (ERP) and resting state studies (rEEG) studies investigating ASD and FXS cohorts are compared. This review explores the electrophysiological similarities and differences between the two disorders in addition to the potentially associated neurobiological mechanisms at play. A series of pertinent research questions which are suggested in the literature are also posed within the review. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders; Fragile X Syndrome; electroencephalography; Event Related Potentials; resting state EEG autism spectrum disorders; Fragile X Syndrome; electroencephalography; Event Related Potentials; resting state EEG
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Devitt, N.M.; Gallagher, L.; Reilly, R.B. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Fragile X Syndrome (FXS): Two Overlapping Disorders Reviewed through Electroencephalography—What Can be Interpreted from the Available Information? Brain Sci. 2015, 5, 92-117.

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