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The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke
Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 119-129 Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona 08035, Spain
Department of Neurology, Nantz National Alzheimer Center, Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2013; in revised form: 10 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Abstract: Advances in acute stroke therapy resulting from thrombolytic treatment, endovascular procedures, and stroke units have improved significantly stroke survival and prognosis; however, for the large majority of patients lacking access to advanced therapies stroke mortality and residual morbidity remain high and many patients become incapacitated by motor and cognitive deficits, with loss of independence in activities of daily living. Therefore, over the past several years, research has been directed to limit the brain lesions produced by acute ischemia (neuroprotection) and to increase the recovery, plasticity and neuroregenerative processes that complement rehabilitation and enhance the possibility of recovery and return to normal functions (neurorepair). Citicoline has therapeutic effects at several stages of the ischemic cascade in acute ischemic stroke and has demonstrated efficiency in a multiplicity of animal models of acute stroke. Long-term treatment with citicoline is safe and effective, improving post-stroke cognitive decline and enhancing patients’ functional recovery. Prolonged citicoline administration at optimal doses has been demonstrated to be remarkably well tolerated and to enhance endogenous mechanisms of neurogenesis and neurorepair contributing to physical therapy and rehabilitation.
Keywords: citicoline; neuroprotection; neurorepair; ischemic stroke; hemorrhagic stroke; vascular dementia; vascular cognitive disorders; neurogenesis; synaptogenesis; neuronal plasticity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Álvarez-Sabín, J.; Román, G.C. The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke. Brain Sci. 2013, 3, 1395-1414.
Álvarez-Sabín J, Román GC. The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke. Brain Sciences. 2013; 3(3):1395-1414.
Álvarez-Sabín, José; Román, Gustavo C. 2013. "The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke." Brain Sci. 3, no. 3: 1395-1414.