Brain Sci. 2013, 3(3), 1395-1414; doi:10.3390/brainsci3031395
Article

The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke

Received: 16 July 2013; in revised form: 10 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroprotection against Ischemic Brain Injury)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Advances in acute stroke therapy resulting from thrombolytic treatment, endovascular procedures, and stroke units have improved significantly stroke survival and prognosis; however, for the large majority of patients lacking access to advanced therapies stroke mortality and residual morbidity remain high and many patients become incapacitated by motor and cognitive deficits, with loss of independence in activities of daily living. Therefore, over the past several years, research has been directed to limit the brain lesions produced by acute ischemia (neuroprotection) and to increase the recovery, plasticity and neuroregenerative processes that complement rehabilitation and enhance the possibility of recovery and return to normal functions (neurorepair). Citicoline has therapeutic effects at several stages of the ischemic cascade in acute ischemic stroke and has demonstrated efficiency in a multiplicity of animal models of acute stroke. Long-term treatment with citicoline is safe and effective, improving post-stroke cognitive decline and enhancing patients’ functional recovery. Prolonged citicoline administration at optimal doses has been demonstrated to be remarkably well tolerated and to enhance endogenous mechanisms of neurogenesis and neurorepair contributing to physical therapy and rehabilitation.
Keywords: citicoline; neuroprotection; neurorepair; ischemic stroke; hemorrhagic stroke; vascular dementia; vascular cognitive disorders; neurogenesis; synaptogenesis; neuronal plasticity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Álvarez-Sabín, J.; Román, G.C. The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke. Brain Sci. 2013, 3, 1395-1414.

AMA Style

Álvarez-Sabín J, Román GC. The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke. Brain Sciences. 2013; 3(3):1395-1414.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Álvarez-Sabín, José; Román, Gustavo C. 2013. "The Role of Citicoline in Neuroprotection and Neurorepair in Ischemic Stroke." Brain Sci. 3, no. 3: 1395-1414.

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