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Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Taurine against Ischemic Stroke
Program in Integrative Biology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2013; in revised form: 14 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 3 June 2013
Abstract: Ischemic stroke exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. To address the diverse pathophysiological mechanisms observed in ischemic stroke investigators seek to find therapeutic strategies that are multifaceted in their action by either investigating multipotential compounds or by using a combination of compounds. Taurine, an endogenous amino acid, exhibits a plethora of physiological functions. It exhibits antioxidative properties, stabilizes membrane, functions as an osmoregulator, modulates ionic movements, reduces the level of pro-inflammators, regulates intracellular calcium concentration; all of which contributes to its neuroprotective effect. Data are accumulating that show the neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine against stroke pathophysiology. In this review, we describe the neuroprotective mechanisms employed by taurine against ischemic stroke and its use in clinical trial for ischemic stroke.
Keywords: ischemic stroke; taurine; neuroprotective mechanisms; glutamate excitotoxicity; mitochondrial dysfunction; endoplasmic reticulum stress; oxidative stress; inflammation; clinical trial
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MDPI and ACS Style
Menzie, J.; Prentice, H.; Wu, J.-Y. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Taurine against Ischemic Stroke. Brain Sci. 2013, 3, 877-907.
Menzie J, Prentice H, Wu J-Y. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Taurine against Ischemic Stroke. Brain Sciences. 2013; 3(2):877-907.
Menzie, Janet; Prentice, Howard; Wu, Jang-Yen. 2013. "Neuroprotective Mechanisms of Taurine against Ischemic Stroke." Brain Sci. 3, no. 2: 877-907.