Optimization of the Antioxidant Potentials of Red Pitaya Peels and Its In Vitro Skin Whitening Properties
AbstractIn this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for the optimization of the antioxidant potentials of red pitaya peels using independent variables: temperature (45–65 °C), ethanol concentration (70–90%, v/v) and time (80–120 min) through its responses, which were DPPH scavenging activity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) inhibition, respectively. In Vitro anti-tyrosinase and vitamin C content assays were carried out spectrophotometrically to determine the skin whitening efficacy of the optimized red pitaya peel extract. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to identify the chemical constituents present in the optimized extract. The optimized conditions were ethanol 82% (v/v) for 103 min at 56 °C with values of 75.98% for DPPH, 7.45 mM Fe2+/g dry weight for FRAP and 93.29% for BCB respectively. The in vitro anti-tyrosinase and vitamin C content evaluation of the optimized extract showed a good tyrosinase inhibition of 66.29% with IC50 of 24.06 µg/mL while the vitamin C content was 5.45 mg/g of the extract. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of thirty phytoconstituents with l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate being the most abundant with a peak area of 14.66%. This study evidently suggests the potential of red pitaya peels to be exploited as a natural skin whitening agent in the cosmeceutical and pharmaceutical formulations. View Full-Text
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Vijayakumar, R.; Abd Gani, S.S.; Zaidan, U.H.; Halmi, M.I.E. Optimization of the Antioxidant Potentials of Red Pitaya Peels and Its In Vitro Skin Whitening Properties. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1516.
Vijayakumar R, Abd Gani SS, Zaidan UH, Halmi MIE. Optimization of the Antioxidant Potentials of Red Pitaya Peels and Its In Vitro Skin Whitening Properties. Applied Sciences. 2018; 8(9):1516.Chicago/Turabian Style
Vijayakumar, Ramya; Abd Gani, Siti S.; Zaidan, Uswatun H.; Halmi, Mohd I.E. 2018. "Optimization of the Antioxidant Potentials of Red Pitaya Peels and Its In Vitro Skin Whitening Properties." Appl. Sci. 8, no. 9: 1516.
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