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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1308; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081308

Battery State Estimation for Lead-Acid Batteries under Float Charge Conditions by Impedance: Benchmark of Common Detection Methods

1
BatterieIngenieure GmbH, Huettenstraße 5, 52068 Aachen, Germany
2
Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), RWTH Aachen University, Jaegerstrasse 17–19, 52066 Aachen, Germany
3
Helmholtz Institute Münster (HI MS), IEK-12, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jaegerstrasse 17-19, 52066 Aachen, Germany
4
Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON ERC, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 10, 52074 Aachen, Germany
5
Jülich Aachen Research Alliance, JARA-Energy, Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, 52425 Juelich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 6 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Management and State Estimation)
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Abstract

Impedance or admittance measurements are a common indicator for the condition of lead-acid batteries in field applications such as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems. However, several commercially available measurement units use different techniques to measure and interpret the battery impedance. This paper describes common measurement methods and compares their indication for the state of health (SoH) to those of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). For this analysis, two strings consisting each of 24 valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries with a rated voltage of 12 V and about 7 Ah capacity were kept under standard UPS conditions in float charge for over 560 days. They were monitored continuously with a LEM Sentinel 2 and went into regular check-ups with impedance measurements by a Hioki BT3554 as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements with an impedance meter (μEIS). Today it is widely expected that solely the relative increase of the impedance reading is sufficient for the estimation of the available capacity. However, it can be shown that the measured relative increase deviates for different frequencies and therefore the choice of the excitation signal and measurement frequency does make a difference for the calculation of the available capacity. Finally, a method for a more decisive monitoring in field applications is suggested. View Full-Text
Keywords: state of health estimation; battery diagnostics; impedance measurements; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; UPS; lead-acid battery state of health estimation; battery diagnostics; impedance measurements; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; UPS; lead-acid battery
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Badeda, J.; Kwiecien, M.; Schulte, D.; Sauer, D.U. Battery State Estimation for Lead-Acid Batteries under Float Charge Conditions by Impedance: Benchmark of Common Detection Methods. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1308.

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