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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040553

Experimental Study of Damage Development in Salt Rock under Uniaxial Stress Using Ultrasonic Velocity and Acoustic Emissions

1
Structural Health Monitoring and Control Institute, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043, Hebei, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Geomechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Institute of Rock and Soil Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China
3
Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, G3 Center and EMS Energy Institute, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
4
College of Pipeline and Civil Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
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Abstract

Ultrasonic waves and acoustic emissions (AE) are important technologies to reveal rock damage. However, few studies have simultaneously monitored both types of data in the same experiment because of limitations on the experimental apparatus. In this study, an integrated ultrasonic wave and AE testing device was developed to investigate the deformation characteristics and damage development of salt rock. Fracture experiments under uniaxial compression were carried out on three samples from the Jintan Salt Mine, Jiangsu Province, China. The deformation process can be divided into five stages. In the compression fissure and linear deformation stages, P- and S-waves rose slightly to stability, and acoustic emission activity was weak (0.04% and 2.66%, respectively). Subsequently, S-wave velocity slowly declined and AE events become more active, with about 13.8% of the total in the stabilized-growth cracks stage. When the salt rock entered the accelerated-growth cracks stage, AE events increased to 75.27%; with features of an earthquake swarm, the velocities of P- and S-waves began to fall significantly. After the peak stress, salt rock produced only a small number of AE events. The beginning stress of rock damage and dilatancy were about 42–50% and 62–67% of the uniaxial compressive strength, respectively. The ultrasonic wave velocity ratio, Ib-value, and r-value effectively predicted rock failure, but the r-value was superior owing to its sensitivity and ease of measurement. View Full-Text
Keywords: salt rock; rock damage; crack; ultrasonic velocity; acoustic emissions salt rock; rock damage; crack; ultrasonic velocity; acoustic emissions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Li, H.; Dong, Z.; Yang, Y.; Liu, B.; Chen, M.; Jing, W. Experimental Study of Damage Development in Salt Rock under Uniaxial Stress Using Ultrasonic Velocity and Acoustic Emissions. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 553.

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