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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 786; doi:10.3390/app7080786

A Feature-Based Structural Measure: An Image Similarity Measure for Face Recognition

School of Computer Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Faculty of Computer Science & Mathematics, University of Kufa, Najaf 54001, Iraq
School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA 6027, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)


Facial recognition is one of the most challenging and interesting problems within the field of computer vision and pattern recognition. During the last few years, it has gained special attention due to its importance in relation to current issues such as security, surveillance systems and forensics analysis. Despite this high level of attention to facial recognition, the success is still limited by certain conditions; there is no method which gives reliable results in all situations. In this paper, we propose an efficient similarity index that resolves the shortcomings of the existing measures of feature and structural similarity. This measure, called the Feature-Based Structural Measure (FSM), combines the best features of the well-known SSIM (structural similarity index measure) and FSIM (feature similarity index measure) approaches, striking a balance between performance for similar and dissimilar images of human faces. In addition to the statistical structural properties provided by SSIM, edge detection is incorporated in FSM as a distinctive structural feature. Its performance is tested for a wide range of PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio), using ORL (Olivetti Research Laboratory, now AT&T Laboratory Cambridge) and FEI (Faculty of Industrial Engineering, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brazil) databases. The proposed measure is tested under conditions of Gaussian noise; simulation results show that the proposed FSM outperforms the well-known SSIM and FSIM approaches in its efficiency of similarity detection and recognition of human faces. View Full-Text
Keywords: face recognition; structural similarity measure; feature similarity measure; edge detection; Gaussian noise face recognition; structural similarity measure; feature similarity measure; edge detection; Gaussian noise

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shnain, N.A.; Hussain, Z.M.; Lu, S.F. A Feature-Based Structural Measure: An Image Similarity Measure for Face Recognition. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 786.

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