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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 247; doi:10.3390/app7030247

Natural Convection Flow of Fractional Nanofluids Over an Isothermal Vertical Plate with Thermal Radiation

1
Academy of Romanian Scientists, Bucharest 050094, Romania
2
Department of Theoretical Mechanics, Technical University of Iasi, Iasi 700050, Romania
3
Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences, Government College University, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yulong Ding
Received: 27 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Developments of Nanofluids)
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Abstract

The studies of classical nanofluids are restricted to models described by partial differential equations of integer order, and the memory effects are ignored. Fractional nanofluids, modeled by differential equations with Caputo time derivatives, are able to describe the influence of memory on the nanofluid behavior. In the present paper, heat and mass transfer characteristics of two water-based fractional nanofluids, containing nanoparticles of CuO and Ag, over an infinite vertical plate with a uniform temperature and thermal radiation, are analytically and graphically studied. Closed form solutions are determined for the dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, and the corresponding Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient. These solutions, presented in equivalent forms in terms of the Wright function or its fractional derivatives, have also been reduced to the known solutions of ordinary nanofluids. The influence of the fractional parameter on the temperature, velocity, Nusselt number, and skin friction coefficient, is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in the natural convection flows is lower for fractional nanofluids, in comparison to ordinary nanofluids. In both cases, the fluid temperature increases for increasing values of the nanoparticle volume fraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: free convection; thermal radiation; fractional nanofluids; exact solutions free convection; thermal radiation; fractional nanofluids; exact solutions
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Fetecau, C.; Vieru, D.; Azhar, W.A. Natural Convection Flow of Fractional Nanofluids Over an Isothermal Vertical Plate with Thermal Radiation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 247.

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