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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(12), 1221; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7121221

An Organizational-Based Model and Agent-Based Simulation for Co-Traveling at an Aggregate Level

1
Instituut Voor Mobiliteit (IMOB), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 Bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Technology, Multan 66000, Pakistan
3
Department of Statistics and Computer Science, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
4
Department of Civil Engineering, University College of Engineering & Technology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 66000, Pakistan
5
Department of Electrical Engineering, Namal College, Talagang Road, Mianwali 42250, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Agent Systems)
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Abstract

Carpooling is an environmentally friendly and sustainable emerging traveling mode that enables commuters to save travel time and travel expenses. In order to co-travel, individuals or agents need to communicate, interpret information, and negotiate to achieve co-operation to find matching partners. This paper offers the scheme of a carpooling model for a set of candidate carpoolers. The model is interpreted using an agent-based simulation to analyze several effects of agents’ interaction and behavior adaptations. Through communication and negotiation processes, agents can reach dynamic contracts in an iterative manner. The start of the negotiation process relies on the agents’ intention to emit an invitation for carpooling. The realization of the negotiation process depends significantly on the departure time choice, on the agents’ profile, and on route optimization. The schedule or agenda adaptation relies on the preferences among the realistic schedules of the agents and usually depends on both the participation of the trip and on the time of day. From the considerations, it is possible to reveal the actual representation of the possible carpoolers during the simulated period. Experiments demonstrate the nearly-polynomial relationship between computation time and the number of agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: agent technology; organizational model; agent behavior; travel behavior; commuting; carpooling agent technology; organizational model; agent behavior; travel behavior; commuting; carpooling
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Hussain, I.; Khan, M.A.; Baqueri, S.F.A.; Shah, S.A.R.; Bashir, M.K.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, I.A. An Organizational-Based Model and Agent-Based Simulation for Co-Traveling at an Aggregate Level. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1221.

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