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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(11), 1107; doi:10.3390/app7111107

Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Module with an Integrated Energy Storage System

1
Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering, University of Bologna, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2
Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, 20156 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Intelligence in Photovoltaic Systems)
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Abstract

This paper is proposing and analyzing an electric energy storage system fully integrated with a photovoltaic PV module, composed by a set of lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4) flat batteries, which constitutes a generation-storage PV unit. The batteries were surface-mounted on the back side of the PV module, distant from the PV backsheet, without exceeding the PV frame size. An additional low-emissivity sheet was introduced to shield the batteries from the backsheet thermal irradiance. The challenge addressed in this paper is to evaluate the PV cell temperature increase, due to the reduced thermal exchanges on the back of the module, and to estimate the temperature of the batteries, verifying their thermal constraints. Two one-dimensional (1D) thermal models, numerically implemented by using the thermal library of Simulink-Matlab accounting for all the heat exchanges, are here proposed: one related to the original PV module, the other related to the portion of the area of the PV module in correspondence of the proposed energy-storage system. Convective and radiative coefficients were then calculated in relation to different configurations and ambient conditions. The model validation has been carried out considering the PV module to be at the nominal operating cell temperature (NOCT), and by specific experimental measurements with a thermographic camera. Finally, appropriate models were used to evaluate the increasing cell batteries temperature in different environmental conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: photovoltaic; battery; integrated storage; PV cell temperature; thermal model; thermal image photovoltaic; battery; integrated storage; PV cell temperature; thermal model; thermal image
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hammami, M.; Torretti, S.; Grimaccia, F.; Grandi, G. Thermal and Performance Analysis of a Photovoltaic Module with an Integrated Energy Storage System. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1107.

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