Next Article in Journal
Global Dynamics of Modeling Flocculation of Microorganism
Previous Article in Journal
Optimal Control of Drug Therapy in a Hepatitis B Model
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(8), 207; doi:10.3390/app6080207

A Novel 3D Analytical Scattering Model for Air-to-Ground Fading Channels

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Computing Engineering and Sciences, Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-trent ST4 2DE, UK
3
School of Computing and Communications, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Verikoukis
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1069 KB, uploaded 4 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

A geometry-based three-dimensional (3D) novel stochastic channel model for air-to-ground (A2G) and ground-to-air (G2A) radio propagation environments is proposed. The vicinity of a ground station (GS) is modelled as surrounded by effective scattering points; whereas the elevated air station’s (AS) vicinity is modelled as a scattering-free region. Characterization of the Doppler spectrum, dispersion in the angular domain and second order fading statistics of the A2G/G2A radio communication channels is presented. Closed-form analytical expressions for joint and marginal probability density functions (PDFs) of Doppler shift, power and angle of arrival (AoA) are derived. Next, the paper presents a comprehensive analysis on the characteristics of angular spread on the basis of shape factors (SFs) for A2G/G2A radio propagation environments independently in both the azimuth and elevation planes. The analysis is further extended to second order statistics of the fading channel; where the behaviour of the level crossing rate (LCR), average fade duration (AFD), auto-covariance and coherence distance for the A2G/G2A radio propagation environment is studied. Finally, the impact of physical channel parameters, such as the mobility of AS, the height of AS, the height of GS and the delay of the longest propagation path, on the distribution characteristics of Doppler shift, angular spread and second order statistics is thoroughly studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: Doppler spectrum; multipath channels; air-to-ground; geometric channel model; shape factors; second order statistics; angular spread Doppler spectrum; multipath channels; air-to-ground; geometric channel model; shape factors; second order statistics; angular spread
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gulfam, S.M.; Nawaz, S.J.; Ahmed, A.; Patwary, M.N.; Ni, Q. A Novel 3D Analytical Scattering Model for Air-to-Ground Fading Channels. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 207.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top