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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(7), 186; doi:10.3390/app6070186

Altered Mechano-Electrochemical Behavior of Articular Cartilage in Populations with Obesity

1
Mechanical Engineering Department, School of Engineering and Architecture (EINA), University of Zaragoza, María de Luna s/n, Betancourt Building, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
2
Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018, Spain
3
Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Zaragoza 50018, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yang Kuang
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 24 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Models of Biology and Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2447 KB, uploaded 27 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Obesity, one of the major problems in modern society, adversely affects people’s health and increases the risk of suffering degeneration in supportive tissues such as cartilage, which loses its ability to support and distribute loads. However, no specific research regarding obesity-associated alterations in the mechano-electrochemical cartilage environment has been developed. Such studies could help us to understand the first signs of cartilage degeneration when body weight increases and to establish preventive treatments to avoid cartilage deterioration. In this work, a previous mechano-electrochemical computational model has been further developed and employed to analyze and quantify the effects of obesity on the articular cartilage of the femoral hip. A comparison between the obtained results of the healthy and osteoarthritic cartilage has been made. It shows that behavioral patterns of cartilage, such as ion fluxes and cation distribution, have considerable similarities with those obtained for the early stages of osteoarthritis. Thus, an increment in the outgoing ion fluxes is produced, resulting in lower cation concentrations in all the cartilage layers. These results suggest that people with obesity, i.e. a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2, should undergo preventive treatments for osteoarthritis to avoid homeostatic alterations and, subsequent, tissue deterioration. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; mechano-electrochemical model; articular cartilage; cartilage degeneration; cartilage loading obesity; mechano-electrochemical model; articular cartilage; cartilage degeneration; cartilage loading
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Manzano, S.; Doblaré, M.; Hamdy Doweidar, M. Altered Mechano-Electrochemical Behavior of Articular Cartilage in Populations with Obesity. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 186.

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