Next Article in Journal
Tracking a Driver’s Face against Extreme Head Poses and Inference of Drowsiness Using a Hidden Markov Model
Next Article in Special Issue
Building an Interoperability Test System for Electric Vehicle Chargers Based on ISO/IEC 15118 and IEC 61850 Standards
Previous Article in Journal
Single Cell Chemotactic Responses of Helicobacter pylori to Urea in a Microfluidic Chip
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Enhanced System Architecture for Optimized Demand Side Management in Smart Grid
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 138; doi:10.3390/app6050138

Effect of Islanding and Telecontrolled Switches on Distribution System Reliability Considering Load and Green-Energy Fluctuations

Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering (DIEEI), University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania 95125, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Minho Shin
Received: 30 December 2015 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 7 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Grid: Convergence and Interoperability)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2008 KB, uploaded 10 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

To improve electrical distribution network reliability, some portions of the network could operate in autonomous mode, provided that the related technical issues are addressed. More specifically, when there is not a path from those portions to the primary substation due to a fault in the network, such portions could be disconnected from the main network and supplied by local generation only. Such a mode of operation is known as “intentional islanding” and its effectiveness, in terms of adequacy, depends on the ability of the local generation to meet the island’s load. In fact, the ratio between the available local generation and load demand can frequently change during islanding due to load variations and, especially, due to the strongly irregular behavior of the primary energy sources of renewable generators. This paper proposes an analytical formulation to assess local generation adequacy during intentional islanding, accounting for the aforementioned variations. More specifically, the fluctuations of load and green-energy generators during islanding are modeled by means of Markov chains, whose output quantities are encompassed in the proposed analytical formulation. Such a formulation is used by the analytical equations of load points’ outage rate and duration. The evaluation of the reliability indices accounts for a protection scheme based on an appropriate communication infrastructure. Therefore, a brief overview on the telecommunications technologies has been presented with reference to their suitability for the specific application. In particular, distribution network safety issues have been considered as the main concern. The results show that neglecting load and generation fluctuations leads to a strong overestimation of the ability of distributed generators to meet the island load. Through a case study it is observed that the error on the load point outage rate is greater than the one affecting the outage duration. View Full-Text
Keywords: distributed generation; distribution network reliability; microgrids; renewable generation; smart grids; telecommunications technologies distributed generation; distribution network reliability; microgrids; renewable generation; smart grids; telecommunications technologies
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Conti, S.; Faraci, G.; La Corte, A.; Nicolosi, R.; Rizzo, S.A.; Schembra, G. Effect of Islanding and Telecontrolled Switches on Distribution System Reliability Considering Load and Green-Energy Fluctuations. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 138.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top